Chapter 02 - Boat Operations
Chapter 02 - Boat Operations
The name of every registered vessel of American Samoa shall be marked on each bow and upon the stern, and the home port shall also be marked upon the stem. These names shall be painted or consist of cut or carved or cast Roman letters in light color on a dark background or in a dark color on a light background, secured in place and to be distinctly visible. The smallest letters shall not be less than 4 inches in size. If any such vessel is found without these names being so marked, the owner, owners, or master shall be liable to penalty of $100 for each name omitted.
Numerals indicating the draft shall be permanently secured or cut into the stem and stern of every registered vessel. Measurement shall be in English feet, taken from the bottom of the keel, and extend 1 foot above the maximum draft allowed. The bottom of each numeral shall indicate the draft of that line and each numeral shall be 6 inches high.
The stability of the vessel will be established prior to the establishment of the load waterlines and marks thereof indicating the maximum depth to which any vessel may be safely loaded, and in establishing such load lines, due consideration will be given to, and differentials made for the various types and character of the vessels and trades in which they are engaged provided, that no load line shall be established or marked on any vessel which, in the judgment of the board of marine inspectors is above the actual line of safety. It shall be the duty of the owner and master of every vessel subject to this section so established to have the load line permanently and conspicuously marked upon the vessel in such manner as the aforesaid board directs and keep the same so marked.
Every vessel shall be equipped with emergency steering apparatus consisting of relieving tackle or hand steering gear by which the vessel can be steered independently of the regular steering gear.
All equipment of a vessel such as fire hose, axes, boats, rafts, oars, life preservers, life buoys, wooden benches, and deck chairs shall be painted or branded with the name of the vessel on which they are used.
(a) Less than 100 gross tons: not less than 4 watertight, transverse bulkheads. There shall be a forepeak bulkhead located not less than 5% of the length of the vessel from the bow, 1 bulkhead at the forward end of machinery space, and 1 bulkhead aft of the machinery space and 1 collision bulkhead after located not less than 5% of the vessel length from the stem; provided, however, if bulkheads provided for in this section are not practical due to construction of the vessel, a permanent flotation medium may be substituted in lieu of the bulkheads. The flotation medium shall be to the satisfaction of the board.
(b) Bulkheads on vessels of 100 gross tons and up to 300 gross tons: no less than 4 nor more than 7, and spaced as required by the local board. The general structure of the vessel shall determine the actual number of bulkheads, but in all cases there shall be 1 watertight bulkhead just forward of the engineroom, 1 watertight bulkhead at the forward end, 1 watertight bulkhead just aft of the engineroom and 1 watertight bulkhead at the stern just forward of the steering gear.
Not more than 12 hours before departure from any port, the steering gear, whistle, and telegraphs between pilothouse and engineroom shall be tested and entered in the ship’s logbook.
Every vessel shall be equipped with a suitable radio telephone, or with radio transmitter and receivers to send and to receive. Such equipment is to be properly maintained and in work order. A radio check is a requirement not more than 1 hour before departure. Vessels underway shall guard at all times the International Radio Telephone Frequency of 2182 M.H.C. All calls shall be entered in a logbook and a copy shall be filed with Pago Pago Communication Center upon arrival in Pago Pago.
Vessels using telegraph between the pilothouse and engineroom shall also be fitted with a voice tube or sound-powered telephone for the purpose of conversation between pilothouse and engineroom. Vessels equipped with wheel house engine controls shall have an alternate means of communication which may be telegraph, voice-type, or power phone between pilothouse and engineroom.
It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the machinery of a vessel to thoroughly examine same and if he finds any part in need of repairs, he shall immediately report the facts to the master, owner, or agent, and, in the event of a major repair, to the board which shall thereupon investigate and if tile former engineer has been negligent in the performance of his duties he may be proceeded against as to revocation or suspension of his license, if licensed in American Samoa.
The inspection of machinery prior to and after repair of any vessel is to ensure good working order.
(a) Tail shafts shall be drawn biannually or at the same time as the annual dry-docking if required by the board.
(b) Whenever any vessel is dry-docked, it shall be the duty of the master, owner, or agent to notify the board so that a thorough examination can be made. No repairs or alterations affecting the safety of the vessel either in regard to hull or machinery shall be made without the knowledge of the board.
At every dry-docking period all sea connections, together with cocks, valves, and strainers, shall be dismantled if so required and examined and, where required, repaired or replaced. The pumping arrangements, piping, and strainers in all bilge compartments shall be examined and maintained in good order.
(a) A complete examination shall be made when required by the board of the main engine and auxiliary engines; all cylinders, pistons, valves, gears, pumps, connecting rods, bearings, guides, and shafting shall be examined. The cylinders, pistons, valves of air compressors shall be examined and renewed where necessary.
(b) The various engine piping systems, coolers, and oil tanks shall be cleaned if necessary. Where necessary to renew parts, these parts shall be new or approved by time board. Guards and rails: All machinery shall be adequately protected by guard rails or covers so that the danger of accidents is minimized.
Every master or engineer shall be required to keep a special logbook showing all repairs, replacement, and general maintenance work clone as required by this chapter.
On all vessels using electrical wiring or electricity for any purpose, the installation shall be in keeping with the best modern practice. Wire shall be of an approved type; (protected) cable shall be required in cargo spaces, storerooms, enginerooms, and in all places where the loads are liable to mechanical injury. Joints in wiring shall be made in metal boxes. When wires are led through beams, frames, or nonwatertight bulkheads, they shall be carried in conduit, armored casing, or bushings. Wire led through watertight bulkheads or decks shall be provided with suitable stuffing boxes. All fixtures, taps, joints, and splices shall be fitted with metal boxes. Boxes exposed to weather, in cargo and machinery spaces, shall be weathertight. Special attention will be given by the board in examining electrical installation to see that it is such as to preclude any danger of fire.
(a) Every vessel licensed to operate shall be provided with 1 approved life preservers for each person carried, and an additional number of life preservers to equal at least 10% of the total number of persons carried shall be for children. There shall be an approved child’s lifejacket available for every child carried aboard the vessel.
(b) Life preservers shall be properly distributed throughout staterooms, crew quarters, and other convenient places for crew and passengers as the board may direct. Lockers, boxes, and closets in which life preservers are stowed shall be plainly marked and life preservers contained therein shall be readily available. A printed notice framed and under glass, shall be posted in each cabin and stateroom informing passengers of the location of the life preservers. At each annual inspection, or oftener if deemed necessary, the life preservers shall be examined by an inspector of the board to determine serviceability. Life preservers found not to be serviceable shall be removed from the vessel and destroyed. Unserviceable life preservers shall be replaced by an equal number of serviceable life preservers.
(a) Number Required. Every vessel licensed to operate shall carry approved number of 30-inch life buoys in accordance with the following table:
|Length of Vessel||Minimum No. of Buoys||Minimum No. With Water Lights Attached|
|Under 70 feet||3||1|
|70 feet and under 110 feet||6||3|
|110 feet and under 150 feet||8||4|
(b) Distribution and Securing. All life buoys (liferings) shall be distributed and secured as follows: All life buoys shall be so placed as to be readily accessible to the persons on board, and their positions shall be plainly indicated. All life buoys shall always be capable of being cast loose and shall not be permanently secured in any way. One life buoy on each side of the vessel shall have an attached line of at least 15 fathoms in length and 3/4 inch circumference. The self-igniting waterlight required shall be of the approved type. Waterlights for liferafts shall be of the battery-operated self-igniting type.
(a) Every vessel licensed to operate shall carry lifeboats and liferafts, as directed by the board. Lifeboats and liferafts shall be kept clear for launching. The decks on which lifeboats and liferafts are carried shall be kept clear of freight or any other obstruction that would interfere with the immediate launching of the lifeboats or liferafts.
(b) Care of lifeboats and liferafts: Lifeboats and liferafts shall be striped, cleaned; thoroughly overhauled, and painted at least once in every 6 months and the board so informed.
(c) Handling of lifeboats and liferafts: All lifeboats shall be stowed in such a way that they can be launched from suitable davits. The davits shall be fitted with blocks and tackle, and other necessary fittings such as fairleads, cleats, and pad eyes, as required for safe launching of the lifeboat.
(d) Equipment for life boats: Every lifeboat required to be carried is to be equipped with the following:
(1) Boat hooks: 2 boat hooks at least 8 feet long;
(2) Bucket: 1 bucket with lanyard attached;
(1) Lifeline: 1 lifeline properly secured the entire length on each side, festooned in bights of not longer than 3 feet with a seine float in each bight;
(4) Life preservers: 2 life preservers in addition to the vessel’s comp1ement of life preservers;
(5) Oars: 4 oars and a steering oar;
(6) Rudder and tiller: 1 rudder and 1 tiller complement with pintle fitting into gudgeons on the stem post of the lifeboat;
(7) Painter: 1 painter of manila rope not less than 2-3/4 inches in circumference and of a length of not less than 3 times the distance between the boat deck and the light sea-going draft secured to the lifeboat, free, and secured to a ring in the liferaft supports onto the check;
(8) Plugs: drain holes fitted with automatic plugs and 2 caps secured by chain;
(9) Rowlock: not less than 4 rowlocks attached to lifeboat by chain, plus 1 steeling row lock;
(10) Drinking cups: 1 drinking cup;
(11) Drinking water: at least 20 quarts water in sealed containers. Loose equipment shall be kept in a locked watertight box and be securely attached to the lifeboat to which it belongs;
(12) Flashlight: 1 flashlight, 1 spare bulb and 2 spare battery cells in a watertight container;
(13) Hatchet: 1 hatchet secured in the bow of the lifeboat by a lanyard;
(14) Signal flares: 12 combination smoke and flare distress signals in a watertight container; to be limited to 3 years’ service;
(15) Matches: 2 boxes matches in watertight container;
(16) Signal mirror: 2 signal mirrors.
(e) Equipment for liferafts:
(1) Distress signals: 12 combination smoke-and-flare distress signals in a watertight container; to be limited to 3 years’ service;
(2) Lifeline: lifeline properly secured entirely around sides and ends of raft, festooned in bights not longer than 3 feet with seine float in each bight;
(3)Paddles: 4 paddles;
(4) Painter: 1 painter of manila rope not less than 2-3/4 inches in diameter and of a length of not less than 3 times the distance between height of stowage and vessel’s light draft;
(5). Self-igniting waterlight: 1 self-igniting waterlight secured to raft by 1 fathom of 3/4 inch circumference manila line;
(6) Boathook: 1 boathook;
(7) Signal mirror: 2 signal mirrors;
(8) Flashlight: 1 flashlight, 2 spare batteries, 1 spare bulb in a watertight container;
(9) Cup: 1 drinking cup;
(10) Water: 10 quarts water in sealed containers
(11) Care of liferafts: if it is found that deterioration has begun, it shall be corrected even to the extent of replacing with a new raft, if so required by the board;
(12) Capacity: each raft shall have marked upon it, in letters of at least 2 inches, the number of persons allowed. The capacity in every instance shall conform with international requirements.
Every vessel shall be required to carry fire axes in accordance with the following table:
|Vessel Length||Minimum Number of Fire Axes|
|Under 70 feet||2|
|Over 70 feet and under 110 feet||3|
|Over 110 feet and under 150 feet||4|
All fire axes are to be located and secured so as to be readily at hand and to be used for emergency purposes only.
All firehoses shall be tested to a pressure of 100 pounds per square inch at each inspection. Firehose shall be of an approved type, double jacketed. Each firehose shall be stowed immediately adjacent to the fire hydrant and in such a manner as to be readily accessible. All firehose shall be fitted with a proper nozzle, gaskets, and spanner. The spanner shall be secured to the hydrant by a length of chain so as to be readily accessible for use. Firehose shall not be used for any other purpose than fire extinguishing.
(a) All vessels of 100 gross tons and under shall be equipped with 1 hand fire pump or a combination fire and bilge pump of not less than 100 cubic inches or a power-driven pump of equivalent of not less than 30 gallons per minute at 60 pounds per square inch at maximum discharge pressure of the pump. This pump is to be in addition to the regular bilge and fire pump as set out below. Vessels over 100 gross tons and under 500 gross tons shall have at least 1 electrical or independently driven pump connected at all times to tile fire mains, and the pumps shall be capable of delivering a jet of water from the highest outlet of the fire mains at a gauged pressure of 50 pounds per square inch through a nozzle of not less than 5/8 inch diameter where the hose diameter does not exceed 1-1/2 inches. Outlet of the fire mains shall be of sufficient number and so arranged that any part of the living quarters, whether decks and cargo decks accessible to crew and passengers, may be reached with a single 50 foot length of hoses
(b) (l)CO2 extinguishers are to be weighed every 6 months and, if found to be more than 10% under the required contents, recharged.
(2) portable CO2 extinguishers or equivalent shall be carried as in the following table, being minimal requirements:
|Vessel Length||Number and Size of Extinguishers|
|(A) Under 70 feet||4-15 lb.|
|(B) Over 70 feet and under 110 feet||6-15 lb.|
|(C) Over 110 feet and under 150 feet||9-15 lb.|
(3) Extinguishers shall be in general distributed throughout the vessel as follows:
(A) Paint locker - 1;
(B) Generator room - 1;
(C) Radio room -1;
(E) Engineroom -2;
(F) Crew compartment -1 for each;
(G) Pilothouse - 1
(H) Lazarette or afterpeak - 1.
(c) CO2 , systems for engineroom space: When at the discretion of the board a CO2 smothering system is installed, the quantity of CO2 shall be sufficient to give a gas salutation of 25% of the gross volume of the engineroom. The quantity of CO2 required may be determined approximately by the following formula:
W L x II x D
22 Where W= Weight of CO2 required in pounds;
L = Length of engineroom in feet;
B= Breadth of engitterocin in feet;
D= Distance in feet from floor plates to underaids of deck immediately above engineroom.
The system shall be capable of being operated from a convenient and accessible place outside of the space protected.
It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer of any vessel to see that such vessel and passenger and crew quarters are kept in a clean and sanitary condition.
Every vessel licensed to operate under the provisions of this section shall be suitably equipped with an emergency medical kit containing such medical supplies as the board directs. Such medical kit shall be under the responsibility of the master. The vessel shall be subject to frequent inspections of the medical supplies in order to ensure their satisfactory condition and that the types and quantities of sup¬plies are maintained. The master of the vessel is required to keep a treatment book and in it enter all treatments and supplies used as justification for replenishing such supplies. All water containers, excepting closed water tanks, whether filled with fresh water or saltwater, shall be emptied once a week so as to destroy any mosquito larvae which they may contain.
(a) Every vessel shall have an official logbook wherein will be entered the following: draft marks prior to departure, radio calls, records of compliance for repairs, replacement and general maintenance and other matters covered by the rules set forth in this chapter and elsewhere in this title.
(b) It is unlawful for any vessel subject to the rules established by the board to be so loaded as to submerge in seawater the load line or lines marked upon the vessel. Any master who permits the load line or tines to be submerged may be liable to suspension or revocation of his license, as the board may direct. The official responsible for clearing the vessel shall require the vessel to off-load either passengers, cargo, or both, sufficient so as not to submerge the load line as established by the beard. The permanent ballast of the vessel shall not be removed in order to correct an overload.
(c) Detention of overloaded vessel: If the board has reason to believe, on complaint or otherwise, that a vessel subject to this chapter is about to proceed to sea when loaded in violation of this section, it may detain her provisionally for the purpose of being surveyed. Such vessel may then be examined by the board and be released or required to reload in whole or in part in order to conform to the rules.
No deck cargo shall be carried unless written authorization has been granted by the port director in each individual case. A reduction in the number of passengers may be made at the discretion of the port director where a vessel is carrying a deck load. The decision of the port director will be final. No cargo shall be carried in areas so designated on the vessel’s certificate.
(a) The maximum number of passengers permitted to be carried on a vessel shall be as determined by the board, and shall be stated on the vessel’s certificate of inspection.
(b) The maximum number of passengers permitted on any vessel of acceptable design and proportions may be determined by a length of rail criterion, deck area criterion, or fixed seating criterion, whichever permits the greatest number. Where seats are provided in one passenger space and are not provided in other passenger spaces, the number of passengers permitted may be the sum of the number permitted by the seating criterion for the space having seats and the number permitted by the area criterion for the space having no seats. For vessels operating on short runs on protected waters such as ferry vessels, the board, may give special consideration to increases in passenger allowances.
(1) Length-of-rail criterion: One passenger may be permitted for each 30 inches of rail space available to the passengers at the vessel’s sides and across the transom.
(2) Deck-area criterion: One passenger may be permitted for each 10 square feet of deck space available for the passenger’s use. In computing such deck area, the areas occupied by the following shall be excluded:
(A) Concession stands;
(B) Toilets and washrooms;
(C) Companionways, stairways, etc.;
(D) Spaces occupied by and necessary for handling lifesaving equipment;
(E)Spaces below deck which are unsuitable for passengers and which would not normally be used by passengers;
(F) Interior passageways less than 30 inches wide and passageways on the open deck less than 1 8 inches wide.
(3) Fixed-seating criterion: One passenger may be permitted for each 18 inches of width of fixed seating provided. Rules covering the installation of fixed seating are contained in subsection (d) of this section.
(c) Notwithstanding the number of passengers permitted by any of the criteria described in subsection (b) of this section, the maximum number may be further limited by stability or subdivision consideration.
(d) In computing the maximum number of passengers, a vessel may carry children under the age of 1 year who shall not be included. Two children over the age of 1 and under 8 shall be computed as 1 person. Where a vessel is carrying the maximum number of passengers allowed by this section, it is unlawful to carry additional passengers on the crew list, when the sole reason for this is to give transportation to such person from one port to another. The master, owner, or agent of any vessel duly subject to rules in American Samoa shall be liable to a fine of $25.00 for each and every passenger such vessel is overloaded in addition to suspension or revocation of the master’s license, as the board directs.
No vessel operated in American Samoa shall depart from any port, harbor, or island unless she has in her service and oil board such complement of licensed officers and crew as is required by her certificate of inspection. The number of licensed officers and crew as is specified by her certificate and shown on the certificate of inspection shall not be increased or decreased without the written approval of the board nor shall any person be added to the crew list unless such person is connected with her ownership and/or navigation. The total number on board shall not exceed the total as entered on the certificate.
The master of any vessel licensed to operate in tile inter-island traffic shall communicate by radio all arrival at and departures of his vessel from ports outside of the harbor limits of American Samoa.
No comphene, nitroglycelin, naphtha benzine, benzol, kerosene, crude petroleum, compressed gases, both industrial and domestic types, other than in fire extinguishers or CO2 in other containers, or other, like explosive-burning fluids or gases or other, like dangerous articles shall be carried as freight on any vessels carrying passengers, nor shall gunpowder be carried on any such vessel without specific authority of the board. Nor shall fire extinguisher, CO2 in other containers, oil, vitriol, nitric or other chemical acids be carried on such vessels except on the decks thereof or in such safe part of the vessel as is prescribed by the board. Ship’s stores such as paints, turpentine, oils, and other products subject to spontaneous combustion or of an explosive nature may be carried; however, in all instances, these stores shall be kept in lockers, tanks, or containers as prescribed by the board. Nothing in the provisions of this section shall prohibit the use by vessels of gasoline or any other petroleum product when used as a source of motive power of such vessel or for the operation of motor boats, lighting plants, or emergency fire pump, provided the storage and equipment meets the approval of the board. When such products are to be carried, a written request to the board shall be made and approval or disapproval made subject to the existing circumstances.
Every vessel, when underway during nighttime and periods of poor visibility, shall have a lookout at the forward part of the vessel. A vessel lying at anchor shall keep a proper anchor watch. A watch tender while underway during nighttime shall make an hourly round of the vessel to guard against fire and other dangers. In no instance shall the helmsman be considered as a lookout. Nothing ill this section shall exonerate the master or officer in command from the consequence of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen or by any special circumstances of the case.
Unnecessary sounding of a vessel’s whistle is prohibited within the harbor limits of American Samoa.
It is prohibited to carry or show any lights not required by international rules that will in any way interfere with distinguishing signals or navigation lights.
Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light onto the bridge or into the pilothouse of any vessel underway is prohibited.
The masters of all vessels shall be required to be familiar with the international rules of the road and to early out the provisions contained in those rules at all times. A copy of the International Rules for the Prevention of Collision at Sea shall be on board at all times.
It shall be the duty of all masters, owners, agents, and engineers when a casualty occurs to the vessel’s structures or machinery, affecting the seaworthiness of the vessel to report same to the board immediately upon arrival or after the discovery of such unsafe condition.
In addition to the report required in 20.0229, each commercial vessel conveying passengers and cargo departing Pago Pago Harbor shall first obtain clearance from the port director. Such clearance shall be obtained during regular hours of the port director and shall be surrendered to the port director if departure of the vessel is during the regular office hours or to a member of the harbor patrol, if departure is after regular office hours. Such clearance shall be dependent upon the prior submission of a predeparture report and copy of the ship’s cargo manifest and a list of the names of the passengers.
The purpose of this article is to regulate motor vessels 40 feet in length and under, but not less than 16 feet, which, are or will be engaged in fishing and other like activities for which remuneration may be received. The purpose of this article is to apply rules which will, in effect, minimize the need for extensive air/sea rescue as has been the practice in the past, of the local fishing fleet in American Samoa.
“Length” is measured from end to end over the deck excluding sheer, and means a straight line measurement of the overall length from foremost part of the vessel to the outmost part of the vessel, and shall be measured parallel to the central line. Bowsprits, bumpkins, rudders, and outboard motor racks and similar fittings attachments are not to be included in the measurements. Length shall be stated in feet and inches.
Every operator of any vessel 40 feet in length and under, but not less than 16 feet, shall have in his possession a license to operate vessels of this design and length, or a marine board license covering vessels of not more than 15 tons.
(a) The operator shall have the knowledge as required for the operation of vessels and shall take an examination prepared by the board. A license to operate this type vessel shall be issued upon passing of the examination.
(b) The operator must have a rudimentary knowledge of engine and other boat hull repairs.
(c) The operator shall have an operating license in ‘us possession, which shall be available for immediate production to boarding officers at any time during which he operates the vessel.
Each vessel shall have fuel tanks constructed to the requirements of the board. All fuel tanks shall
be suitably vented.
Each vessel shall be equipped with navigational lights in accordance with the international rules of the road.
Each vessel shall have on board fire extinguishers, not to be less than two 5-lb. chemical or CO., extinguishers.
Each vessel shall have pyrotechnic day and night signals as contained in the rules of the board covering such articles.
Each vessel shall have on board a 5/8-inch-diameter nylon anchor line of not less than 50 fathoms in length, attached, to a suitable chain of not less than 4 fathoms, attached to an anchor of not less than 20 lbs., a Danforth or like anchor.
Each vessel will have on board at all times 150 feet of 3/4-inch-diameter nylon or like rope tow lines with suitable eyes at each end.
Each vessel shall have at least 1 lifering attached to 65 feet of 1/4-inch-diameter line.
Each vessel shall have at all times a compass which has been adjusted and the vessel swung at least once every 2 years.
Each vessel shall have a metallic radar reflector, of fixed or collapsible design of not more than 30 inches in diameter and not less than 12 inches in diameter, with a suitable extension mast of not less than 6 feet high.
Each vessel shall have a suitable radio transceiver aboard which shall be kept in operating condition at all times. Status and position reports shall be made to Pago Pago radio every 4 hours, starting from prior to leaving the port, and are to continue every 4 hours thereafter or until the vessel is berthed: A suitable log shall be kept for all voice transmission and answers received. Radio batteries shall be separated from engine starting batteries. Minimum frequencies required are 2182, 2638 single side band or VHF channel16.
Each vessel shall have at least 2 watertight bulkheads, and either compartment shall be capable of sustaining the flotation of the vessel.
Each vessel shall carry at all times sufficient emergency rations for 6 people for a period of 5 days. This may be in the form of biscuits and canned beef or other like substances. Each vessel shall also carry aboard a minimum of 2 pints water per person per day-for a period of 5 days.
Each vessel shall be inspected as the board deems fit and each vessel shall have an overhaul or drydocking inspection on shore at least once every 2 years.
Each vessel shall carry aboard sufficient U.S. Coast Guard-approved lifejackets for all personnel plus 10% or 2 extra. All lifesaving equipment required by this article must be legibly marked as specified by the board rules set out in this title.
All gasoline-engined vessels shall be equipped with acceptable means of backfire flame control. The flame arrestor shall be suitably secured to the air intake with flare-type connections.
No person shall operate a vessel to which this article applies unless it meets the requirements of this article.
The owner shall not allow any person to operate a vessel to which this article applies unless it meets the requirements of the article.
All vessels shall be equipped with a suitable emergency bilge pump. Such pumps shall be manual, mechanical, or electrical, and of suitable size as determined by having a capability of not less than 15 gallons per minute.