Constitution of the United States of America

Article I

 

Sections:

 

1.  Legislative powers

2.  House of Representatives; how constituted; power of impeachment

3.  The Senate; how constituted; impeachment trials

4.  Election of Senators and Representatives

5.  Quorum; journals: meetings; adjournments

6.  Compensation; privileges; disabilities

7.  Procedure in passing bills and resolutions

8.  Powers of Congress

9.  Limitations upon powers of Congress

10.  Restrictions upon powers of states

 

 

Article II

 

1.  President and Vice President

2.  Powers of the President

3.  Messages to Congress: additional powers and duties

4.  Impeachment

 

 

 Article III

 

1.  Judicial power; tenure of office

2.  Jurisdiction

3.  Treason; proof and punishment

 

 

Article IV

 

1.  Full faith and credit among states

2.  Privileges and immunities; fugitives

3.  Admission of new states: power over territory and other property

4.  Guarantee of republican form of government

 

 

Article V

     1.  Amendment of the Constitution

 

 

Article VI

 

     1.  Debts; supremacy; oath

 

 

Article VII

 

     1.  Ratification and establishment

 

Footnotes to the US. Constitution are numbered throughout the text and are located at the end of the Constitution.

 

 

 

 

 

Amendments

 

Sections:

 

     1.  Freedom of religion, speech and press: peaceful assemblage; petition of grievances

 

     2.  Right to bear arms

 

     3.  Soldiers denied quarters in homes

 

     4.  Searches and seizures

 

     5.  Capital crimes; double jeopardy; self-incrimination; due process: just compensation for property

 

     6.  Jury trial for crimes, and procedural rights

 

     7.  Civil trials

 

     8.  Excessive bail, fines, punishments

 

     9.  Construction of enumerated rights

 

     10.  Reserved powers to states

 

     11.  Suits against states

 

     12.  Presidential electors

 

     13.  § 1. Slavery abolished

 

            § 2. Enforcement

 

     14.  § 1. Citizenship rights not to be abridged by states

 

            § 2. Apportionment of Representatives in Congress

 

            § 3. Persons disqualified from holding office

 

            § 4. What public debts are void

 

            § 5. Power to enforce article

 

     15.  § 1. Right to vote not to be abridged

 

            § 2. Power to enforce article

 

     16.  Income tax

 

     17.  Popular election of Senators

 

     18.  Liquor prohibition

 

     19.  Woman suffrage

 

     20.  § 1. Terms of office

 

            § 2. Time of convening Congress

 

            § 3. Death of President elect

 

            § 4. Election of the President

 

            § 5. Effective date of sections 1 and 2

 

            § 6. Ratification within seven years

 

     21.  § 1. National liquor prohibition repealed

 

            § 2. Transportation of liquor into “dry” state

 

            § 3. Ratification within seven years

 

     22.  § 1. Limitation on presidential terms

 

            § 2. Ratification within seven years

 

     23.  § 1. Electors for District of Columbia

 

            § 2. Enforcement of article

 

     24.  § 1. No franchise denied by nonpayment of poll tax

 

            § 2. Enforcement of article

 

     25.  § 1. Succession of Vice President

 

            § 2. Nomination of Vice President; confirmation

 

            § 3. Determination by President of inability to act; Vice President as Acting President

 

            § 4. Determination by Vice President and others as to President’s ability to act; Vice President
               as Acting President

 

     26.  § 1. Extension of right to vote to citizens eighteen years of age or older

 

            § 2. Enforcement of article

 

     27.  Compensation of Senators and Representatives

 

 

 

 

Publisher's Note: Headings for the articles, sections and amend­ments of the Constitution have been provided by the publisher and are of no legal effect.


 

We the people of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

 

 

 

Article I

 

§ 1. Legislative powers.
All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Repre­sentatives.

 

 

 

§ 2. House of Representatives; how constituted; power of impeachment.
The House of Representatives shall be com­posed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

 

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

 

¹Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumera­tion shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative: and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chose three Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

 

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

 

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

 

 

 

§ 3.The Senate; how constituted; impeachment trials.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State. chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years: and each Senator shall have one Vote.

 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second year, of the second Class at the Expira­tion of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

 

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabi­tant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

 

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

 

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

 

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

 

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment according to Law.

 

 

 

§ 4. Election of Senators and Representatives.
The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof: but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of choosing Senators.

 

3The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

 

 

 

§ 5. Quorum; journals; meetings: adjournments.
Each House shall be the Judge of the Elec­tions, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quroum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

 

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

 

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Pro­ceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judg­ment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the Journal.

 

Neither House, during the Session of Con­gress shall, without the Consent of the other adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

 

 

 

§ 6. Compensation; privileges; disabilities.
The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascer­tained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time: and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Contin­uance in Office.

 

 

 

§ 7. Procedure in passing bills and resolutions.
All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

 

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approves he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objec­tions to that House in which it shall have origin­ated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be recon­sidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be deter­mined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respec­tively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

 

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be re­passed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

 

 

 

§ 8. Powers of Congress.
The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States: but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States:

 

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States:

 

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes:

 

To establish a uniform Rule of Naturaliza­tion. and uniform Laws on the subject of Bank­ruptcies throughout the United States;

 

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

 

To provide for the Punishment of counter­feiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States:

 

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

 

To promote the Progress of Science and use­ful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries:

 

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

 

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Laws of Nations;

 

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

 

To raise and support Armies, but no Appro­priation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

 

To provide and maintain a Navy;

 

To make rules for the Government and Regu­lation of the land and naval Forces;

 

To provide for calling forth the Militia to exe­cute the Laws of the Union suppress Insur­rections and repel Invasions;

 

To provide for organizing, arming, and dis­ciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers and the Authority of training the Militia accord­ing to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

 

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may by Cession of parti­cular States, and the Acceptance of Congress become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Build­ings; — And

 

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the fore­going Powers and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United-States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

 

 

 

§ 9 Limitations upon powers of Congress.

 

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

 

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

 

No bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

 

No Capitation, or other direct Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration here in before directed to be taken.

 

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles ex­ported from any State.

 

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

 

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law: and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

 

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall without the Consent of the Congress accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

 

 

 

§ 10. Restrictions upon powers of states.

 

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money: emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

 

No State shall. without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress.

 

No State shall, without the Consent of Con­gress lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

 

 

 

Article II

 

§ 1. President and Vice President.
The executive Power shall be vested in a Presi­dent of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

 

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States shall be appointed an Elector.

 

The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by Ballot for two Persons of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves.And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President: and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.

 

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes: which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

 

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution shall be eligible to the Office of President: neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

 

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice Presi­dent and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or In­ability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as Presi­dent, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

 

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

 

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation: — “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of Presi­dent of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

 

 

 

§ 2. Powers of the President.

 

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the prin­cipal Officer in each of the executive Depart­ments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States except in Cases of Impeachment.

 

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls. Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

 

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

 

 

 

§ 3.Messages to Congress; additional powers and duties.

 

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient: he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

 

 

 

§ 4. Impeachment.

 

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Convic­tion of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

 

 

 

Article III

 

§ 1. Judicial power: tenure of office.

 

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

 

 

 

§ 2. Jurisdiction.

 

The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitu­tion the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; — to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; — to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction: —to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; — to Controversies between two or more States; — between a State and Citizens of another State: — between Citizens of different States; — between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States. and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

 

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

 

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

 

 

 

§ 3. Treason; proof and punishment.

 

Treason against the United States, shall con­sist only in levying War against them, or in ad­hering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No person shall be convicted of

 

Treason unless on the Testimony of two Wit­nesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

 

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or For­feiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

 

 

 

Article IV

 

§ 1. Full faith and credit among states.
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Con­gress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

 

 

 

§ 2. Privileges and immunities: fugitives.
The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

 

A person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

 

No Person held to Service on Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

 

 

 

§ 3.Admission of new states; power over territory and other property.
New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

 

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations re­specting the Territory or other Property belong­ing to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Pre­judice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

 

 

 

§ 4.Guarantee of republican form of government.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

 

 

 

Article V

 

Amendment of the Constitution
The Congress whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legis­latures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article: and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

 

 

 

Article VI

 

Debts: supremacy; oath
All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution as under the Confederation.

 

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof: and all Treaties made, or which shall be made under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

 

The Senators and Representatives before men­tioned and the Members of the several State Legislatures and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

 

 

 

Article VII

 

Ratification and establishment
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratify­ing the Same.

 

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our Names,

 

 

 

Go. WASHINGTON —
Presidt and deputy from Virginia.

Attest
William Jackson Secretary

 

Delaware

Geo: Read
Gunning Bedford jun
John Dickinson
Richard Bassett
Jaco: Broom

 

Maryland

James McHenry
Dan of St Thos. Jenifer
Danl. Carroll

 

Virginia

John Blair
James Madison Jr.

 

North Carolina

Wm. Blount
Richd. Dobbs Spaight
Hu Williamson

 

South Carolina

J. Rutledge
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Charles Pinckney
Pierce Butler

 

Georgia

William Few
Abr Baldwin

 

New Hampshire

John Langdon
Nicholas Gilman

 

Massachusetts

Nathaniel Gorham
Rufus King

 

Connecticut

Wm. Saml. Johnson
Roger Sherman

 

New York

Alexander Hamilton

 

New Jersey

Wil: Livingston
David Brearley
Wm. Paterson
Jona: Dayton

 

Pennsylvania

B Franklin
Thomas Mifflin
Robt. Morris
Geo. Clymer
Thos. FitzSimons
Jard Ingersoll
James Wilson
Gouv Morris


 

 

7ARTICLES IN ADDITION TO, AND AMEND­MENT OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA PRO­POSED BY CONGRESS, AND RATIFIED BY THE LEGISLATURES OF THE SEVERAL STATES, PURSUANT TO THE FIFTH ARTICLE OF THE ORIGINAL CONSTITUTION.

 

 

 

AMENDMENTS

 

First Amendment
Freedom of religion, speech and press; peaceful assemblage; petition of grievances
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

 

 

 

Second Amendment
Right to bear arms
A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

 

 

 

Third Amendment
Soldiers denied quarters in homes
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

 

 

 

Fourth Amendment
Searches and seizures
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against un­reasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirma­tion, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.

 

 

 

Fifth Amendment
Capital crimes; double jeopardy; self-incrimination; due process; just compensation for property
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb: nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a wit­ness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law: nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

 

 

 

Sixth Amendment
Jury trial for crimes, and procedural rights
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district where­in the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.

 

 

 

Seventh Amendment
Civil trials
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexam­ined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

 

 

 

Eighth Amendment
Excessive bail, fines, punishments
Excessive bail shall not be required nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

 

 

 

Ninth Amendment
Construction of enumerated rights
The enumeration in the Constitution of cer­tain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

 

 

 

Tenth Amendment
Reserved powers to states
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respec­tively, or to the people.

 

 

 

Eleventh Amendment
Suits against states
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

 

 

 

Twelfth Amendment
Presidential electors
The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves: they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President and of all persons voted for as Vice-President and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; — The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certifi­cates and the votes shall then be counted; — The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed: and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representa­tives shall chuse immediately, by ballot the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representa­tion from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not chuse a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional dis­ability of the President. — The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall chuse the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be neces­sary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

 

 

 

Thirteenth Amendment§ 1.Slavery abolished
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

 

§ 2. Enforcement
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 

 

 

Fourteenth Amendment
§ 1.Citizenship rights not to be abridged by states
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or en­force any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

 

§ 2.Apportionment of Representatives in Congress
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice Presi­dent of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation there­in shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

 

 

§ 3. Persons disqualified from holding office
No person shall be a Senator or Representa­tive in Congress or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military under the United States, or under any State who, having previously taken an oath, as a mem­ber of Congress or as an officer of the United States or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State to support the Constitution of the United States shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

 

 

§ 4. What public debts are void
The validity of the public debts of the United States authorized by law, including debts incur­red for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrec­tion or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

 

 

§ 5. Power to enforce article
The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation the provisions of this article.

 

Case Notes:  High Court holds that territory of American Samoa is not a state” within 14th amendment, thereby precluding appli­cation in territory of federal civil rights laws intended to remedy deprivations of rights under the amendment. Ferstie v. A.S.G., 4 A.S.R. 2d 160 (1987) (mem).

 

 

 

 

 

Fifteenth Amendment
§ 1. Right to vote not to be abridged
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

 

§ 2. Power to enforce article
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 

 

 

Sixteenth Amendment
Income tax
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States and without regard to any census or enumeration.

 

 

 

Seventeenth Amendment
Popular election of Senators
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State elected by the people thereof, for six years: and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifica­tions requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

 

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of elec­tion to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the execu­tive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

 

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

 

 

 

8Eighteenth Amendment
Liquor prohibition
§ 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transporta­tion of intoxicating liquors within, the importa­tion thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

 

§ 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 

§ 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

 

 

 

Nineteenth Amendment
Woman suffrage
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 

 

 

Twentieth Amendment
§ 1. Terms of office
The terms of the President and Vice Presi­dent shall end at noon on the 20th day of Janu­ary and the terms of Senators and Representa­tives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

 

§ 2. Time of convening Congress
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meetings shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

 

§ 3. Death of President elect
If at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declar­ing who shall then act as President or the man­ner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

 

 

 

§ 4. Election of the President
The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may chuse a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may chuse a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

 

 

 

§ 5. Effective date of sections 1 and 2
Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

 

 

 

§ 6. Ratification within seven years
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Con­stitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

 

 

 

Twenty-first Amendment
§ 1. National liquor prohibition repealed
The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

 

§ 2. Transportation of liquor into “dry” state
The transaction or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

 

§ 3. Ratification within seven years
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Con­stitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

 

 

 

Twenty-second Amendment
§ 1. Limitation on presidential terms
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

 

 

 

§ 2. Ratification within seven years
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Con­stitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

 

 

 

Twenty-third Amendment
§ 1. Electors for District of Columbia
The District constituting the seat of Govern­ment of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

 

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senator and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be con­sidered, for the purposes of the election of Presi­dent and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

 

§ 2. Enforcement of article
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 

 

 

History
Ratification. The 36th Congress proposed this amendment on June 16, 1960, and on April 3, 1961, the Administrator of General Services declared it to have been ratified. The certifying statement of the Administrator of General Services that the amendment had become valid was published on April 3, 1961 (F.R. Doc. 61-3017. 26 P.R. 2808).

 

The ratification by States was as follows: Hawaii, June 23, 1960; Massachusetts, Aug. 22, 1960; New Jersey, Dec. 19, 1960; New York, Jan. 17, 1961; California, Jan. 19,1961; Oregon, Jan. 27, 1961. Maryland, Jan. 30, 1961; Idaho, Jan. 31, 1961; Maine, Jan. 31, 1961; Minnesota, Jan. 31, 1961, New Mexico, Feb. 1, 1961; Nevada, Feb. 2, 1961; Montana, Feb. 6, 1961; Colorado, Feb. 8, 1961; Washington, Feb. 9, 1961; West Virginia, Feb. 9, 1961; Alaska, Feb. 10, 1961; Wyoming, Feb. 13, 1961; South Dakota, Feb. 14, 1961; Delaware, Feb. 20, 1961; Utah, Feb. 21, 1961; Wisconsin, Feb. 21, 1961; Pennsylvania, Feb. 28, 1961; Indiana, Mar. 3, 1961; North Dakota, Mar. 3, 1961; Tennessee, Mar. 6, 1961; Michigan, Mar. 8, 1961; Connecticut, Mar. 9, 1961; Arizona, Mar. 10, 1961; Illinois, Mar. 14, 1961; Nebraska, Mar. 15, 1961; Vermont, Mar. 15, 1961; Iowa, Mar. 6, 1961; Missouri, Mar. 20, 1961; Oklahoma, Mar. 21, 1961; Rhode Island, Mar. 22, 1961; Kansas, Mar. 29, 1961; Ohio, Mar. 29, 1961; and New Hampshire, Mar. 30, 1961.

 

 

 

Twenty-fourth Amendment
§ 1.No franchise denied by nonpayment of poll tax
The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for Presi­dent or Vice President for electors for Presi­dent or Vice President, or for Senator or Repre­sentative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

 

 

 

§ 2. Enforcement of article
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 

 

 

History
Ratification. This amendment was proposed by the 87th Congress on August 27, 1962 (Sen. Jt. Res. No. 29), and was declared by the Administrator of General Services on February 4, 1964, to have been ratified. The certifying statement of the Administrator of General Services that the amendment had be­come valid was published on February 5, 1964 (F.R. Doc. 64-1229,29 F.R. 1715).

 

The ratification by Slates was as follows: Illinois, Nov. 14, 1962; New Jersey, Dec. 3, 1962; Oregon, Jan. 25, 1963; Montana, Jan. 28, 1963; West Virginia, Feb. 1, 1963; New York. Feb. 4, 1963; Maryland, Feb. 6, 1963; California, Feb. 7, 1963; Alaska, Feb 11, 1963; Rhode Island, Feb. 14, 1963; Indiana, Feb. 19, 1963; Utah, Feb. 20, 1963; Michigan, Feb. 20, 1963; Colorado, Feb. 21, 1963; Ohio, Feb. 27, 1963; Minnesota, Feb 27, 1963; New Mexico, Mar. 5, 1963; Hawaii, Mar. 6, 1963; North Dakota, Mar. 7, 1963; Idaho, Mar. 8, 1963; Washington, Mar 14, 1963; Vermont, Mar. 15, 1963; Nevada; Mar. 19, 1963;

 

Connecticut, Mar. 20, 1963; Tennessee. Mar. 21, 1963,Pennsylvania. Mar. 25. 1963, Wisconsin. Mar. 26, 1963; Kansas. Mar. 28, 1963; Massachusetts. Mar. 28, 1963; Nebraska, Apr. 4, 1963; Florida; Apr. 18, 1963; Iowa, Apr. 24, 1963; Delaware, May 1, 1963; Missouri, May 13, 1963; New Hampshire, June 12, 1963; Kentucky, June 27, 1963; Maine, Jan. 16, 1964; South Dakota, Jan. 23, 1964.

 

 

 

Twenty-fifth Amendment
§ 1. Succession of Vice President
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

 

§ 2.Nomination of Vice President; confirmation
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon con­firmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

 

§ 3. Determination by President of inability to act; Vice President as Acting President
Whenever the President transmits to the Presi­dent pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary such powers and duties shall be dis­charged by the Vice President as Acting Presi­dent.

 

§ 4. Determination by Vice President and others as to President’s ability to act; Vice President as Acting President
Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to dis­charge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

 

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the Presi­dent is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall con­tinue to discharge the same as Acting President: otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

 

 

 

History
Ratification. The 89th Congress proposed this amendment on Jan. 4, 1965, it was declared by the Administrator of General Services to have been ratified on Feb. 23, 1967 The certifying statement of the Administrator of General Services that the Amendment had become valid was published on Feb. 23, 1967 (F.R. Doc 61-2208, 32 F.R. 3287).

 

This amendment has been ratified by the Legislatures of the States of Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massa­chusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

 

 

 

Twenty-sixth Amendment
§ 1.Extension of right to vote to citizens eighteen years of age or older
The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

 

§ 2. Enforcement of article
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 

 

 

History
Proposal and ratification. This amendment was proposed by the Ninety-second Congress by Senate Joint Resolution No. 7, which was approved by the Senate on March 10, 1971, and by the House of Representatives on March 23, 1911. It was declared by the Administrator of General Services on July 5, 1971 to have been ratified.

 

This amendment has been ratified by the Legislatures of the States of Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois. Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan,

 

Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.

 

 

 

Twenty-Seventh Amendment
Compensation of Senators and Representatives
No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

 

 

 

HISTORICAL NOTES

 

Proposal and Ratification
The Twenty-seventh Amendment was proposed on September 25, 1789.The State legislatures ratified this Amendment on the following dates:Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Delaware, Vermont, Virginia, 1789-1791; Ohio, May 6, 1873;Wyoming, March 6, 1978; Maine, April 27, 1983;Colorado, April 22, 1984; South Dakota, February 1985;New Hampshire, March 7, 1985;Arizona, April 3, 1985;Tennessee, May 28, 1985;Oklahoma, July 10, 1985;New Mexico, February 14, 1986;Indiana, February 24, 1986;Utah, February 25, 1986;Arkansas, March 13,1987;Montana, March 17, 1987;Connecticut, May 13, 1987;Wisconsin, July 15, 1987;Georgia, February 2, 1988;West Virginia, March 10, 1988;Louisiana, July 7, 1988;Iowa, February 9, 1989;Idaho, March 23, 1989;Nevada, April 26, 1989;Alaska, May 6, 1989;Oregon, May 19, 1989;Minnesota, May 22, 1989;Texas, May 25, 1989;Kansas, April 5, 1990;Florida, May 31, 1990;North Dakota, March 25, 1991;Alabama, May 5, 1992;Missouri, May 5, 1992;Michigan, May 7, 1992.The State of New Jersey later ratified this amendment on May 7, 1992.

 

 

 

Certification of Validity
Publication of the certifying statement of the Archivist of the United States, pursuant to 1U.S.C.A. § 106b, that the amendment has become valid was made on May 19, 1992, F.R. Doc. 92-11951, 57 F.R. 21187.

 

 

 

LIBRARY REFERENCES

 

Law Review and Journal Commentaries
Do we have enough ethics in government yet?An answer from fiduciary theory.Kathleen Clark, 1996 U.Ill.L.Rev.57.

 

General theory of Article V:the constitutional lessons of the Twenty-seventh Amendment.Michael Stoke Paulsen, 103 Yale L.J. 677 (1993).

 

The sleeper wakes:The history and legacy of the Twenty-Seventh Amendment.Richard B. Bernstein, 61 Fordham L. Rev.497 (1992)

 

 

 

NOTES OF DECISIONS

 

Ethics Reform Act1

 

 

1. Ethics Reform Act
Cost of living adjustment (COLA) provision of Ethics Reform Act did not cause any adjustment to congressional compensation until after election and seating of new Congress, and thus was constitutional, even if Twenty-Seventh Amendment applied to it.Boehner v. Anderson, C.A.D.C.1994, 30 F.3d 156, 308 U.S.App.D.C. 94.

 

Any congressional pay raises stemming from Ethics Reform Act of 1989 meet requirements of 27th Amendment, which provides that no law bearing on congressional compensation shall take effect until election of representatives has intervened;Act became law in November, 1989, election was held in November, 1990, first cost of living adjustment became effective in January, 1991 and, during 1990 elections, and again in 1992, voters had opportunity to approve or disapprove legislation.Boehner v. Anderson, D.D.C.1992, 809 F.Supp. 138, appeal dismissed in part, affirmed 30 F.3d 156, 308 U.S.App.D.C. 94.

 

 

FOOTNOTES TO THE U.S. CONSTITUTION

  1. This clause was affected by the 14th and 16th amendments.
  2. This section was affected by the 17th amendment.
  3. This paragraph was affected by the 20th amendment.
  4. This paragraph was affected by the 16th amendment.
  5. This paragraph was affected by the l2tn amendment.
  6. This section was affected by the 11th amendment.
  7. The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States were proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the First Congress, on the 25th of September, 1789. They were ratified by the following States, and the notifications of ratification by the governors thereof were successively communicated by the President of Congress: New Jersey, November 20, 1789; Maryland, December 19, 1789; North Carolina, December 22, 1789; South Carolina, January 19, 1790, New Hampshire, January 25, 1790; Delaware. January 28, 1790: Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790; New York, March 27, 1190; Rhode island. June 15. 1790; Vermont, November 3, 1791; and Virginia, December 15, 1791. The legislatures of Connecticut. Georgia and Massachusetts ratified them on April 19, 1939, March 25, 1939 and March 2, 1939, respectively.

 

The remaining amendments were proclaimed on the following dates to have been ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the States:

 

11th amendment: January 8,1798.

 

12th amendment: September 25, 1804

 

13th amendment: December 18, 1865.

 

14th amendment: July 28, 1868.

 

15th amendment: March 30, 1870.

 

16th amendment: February 25. 1913.

 

17th amendment: May 31, 1913.

 

18th amendment: January 29, 1919.
The 18th amendment was repealed by the 21st amendment.

 

19th amendment August 26, 1920.

 

20th amendment: February 6, 1933.

 

21st amendment: December 5 1933

 

22d amendment: March 1. 1951.

 

23rdamendment: April 3, 1961.

 

24th amendment: February 5, 1964.

 

 

 

Section 1. Adoption of Code.

 

  1. The American Samoa Code Annotated, attached hereto, together with the laws of the 4th Regular Session and any Special Session not now codified in American Samoa Code Annotated, all as recodified and published by the Legislative Reference Bureau under the authority of PL 13-4, as amended by PL 15-30 and PL 15-38, is adopted as prima facie the law of American Samoa.
  2. The American Samoa Code Annotated is enacted as a reenactment of the American Samoa Code (1973), and the supplements there­to.
  3. The enactment of the American Samoa Code Annotated may not:
    • revive a law repealed or superseded before the effective date of the American Samoa Code Annotated;
    • affect an act done right accrued, or obligation incurred or imposed by law prior to the effective date of the American Samoa Code Annotated;
    • affect any action suit, or proceeding pending on such effective date;
    • repeal statutes of a nongeneral, nonperm­anent nature such as severability, construction, validating, repealing, or similar statutes omitted from the American Samoa Code Annotated;
  4. The American Samoa Code Annotated shall be given effect as a continuation of the American Samoa Code (1973) and not as a new enactment.
  5. No implication or presumption of legisla­tive construction is to be drawn from the classi­fication or arrangement of the American Samoa Code Annotated.
  6. Unless specifically adopted as such by the Legislature, comments, notes, catchlines, or other editorial material included in the American Samoa Code Annotated may not be construed as part of the legislative text but are only for the purpose of convenience, orderly arrangement, and information.
  7. After enactment, the American Samoa Code Annotated, including all subsequent replacement volumes, is the official law of American Samoa, except in case of an inconsistency in meaning arising through omission or otherwise between the provisions of the American Samoa Code Annotated and the cor­responding portion of the official enrolled bill on file with the secretary of territory, effect shall be given to the official enrolled bill.

 

 

 

History:1980, PL 16-83 § 1.

 

Section 3. This act is effective on 1 January 1981.

 

 

History:1980, PL 16-83 § 3.